Wednesday, 19 August 2009
Demonstration model of tidal flows around Guernsey and Sark, The Channel Islands, for renewable energy production

Introduction

The Channel Islands have one of the highest resources of tidal flow energy in the United Kingdom. This simple modelling exercise has been undertaken in order to demonstrate the functionality and capability of MIKE 21 to investigate the viability of harnessing the tidal flows around Guernsey and Sark for energy production.





Defining the Hydrodynamic Model
  • A triangular element flexible mesh has been applied over the entire model domain; comprising 38679 Elements & 20405 Nodes
  • An overall time step of 300 seconds has been selected. The duration of the simulation is 7 days (2016 overall time steps). The simulation period covers an arbitrary week from 03/07/2009 – 10/07/2009. as such, higher spring tides have not been considered in this example.
  • The horizontal eddy viscosity type has been set to a velocity based Smagorinsky formulation with a constant value of 0.28
  • The bed resistance type has been set to Manning number and a constant value of 32 m1/3/s applied
  • Coriolis forcing has been set to varying in domain
  • Wind forcing has not been considered

Define model domain; import shoreline data, redistributing vertices to prepare for mesh generation


Increase definition at study area


Create computational mesh; increase definition in study area


Bathymetry data; depth values extracted from MIKE C-MAP for greater accuracy at study area


Bathymetry data; ETOPO1 1-minute grid (Amante, C. and B. W. Eakins, ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model: Procedures, Data Sources and Analysis, National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce, Boulder, CO, August 2008)


Interpolated bathymetry; water depths (study area) relative to Chart Datum [1]
[1] Datum info: Chart Datum (CD) is usually equal to LAT in the UK (e.g. see http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/oswebsite/partnerships/research/publications/docs/2003/ICZMAP_GISRUK_full_dm.pdf for height integration at the coastal zone). For a global relief model, like ETOPO2v2, which has 2 arc-minute (~4 km) cell size, the differences between vertical datums are considered to be not significant, so long as they are all near Mean Sea Level (MSL). As such, a height correction should be applied to datasets relative to Chart Datum (see below).

Mean Sea Levels relative to Chart Datum


Adjusted model bathymetry; water depths relative to Mean Sea Level


Assign tidal boundary conditions to East & West boundaries; line time series generated using MIKE 21 Toolbox (prediction based on global tide model data)


West boundary

Model Results


Calibration against UKHO tidal predictions for St Peter Port over the study period; good correlation, parameters are appropriate for the purpose of this modelling exercise


Animation of tidal current velocities; The Channel


Animation of tidal current velocities; Channel Islands


Animation of tidal current velocities; Guernsey & Sark


Introduce turbine structures between Guernsey & Sark; Turbine 1 (North) & Turbine 2 (South). Assumed parameters; Turbine diameter = 16m, Drag coefficient = 0.4


Modelled turbine velocity (m/s); assumed criteria for viability > 1m/s (say 2m/s for spring tides)

The energy available from the turbines can (for example) be estimated as follows: -
P = Cp x 0.5 x ρ x A x V³
where: -
P = power generated (W)
Cp = turbine performance coefficient
ρ = water density (seawater ~ 1025 kg/m³)
A = sweep area of the turbine (m²)
V = flow velocity (m/s)


Modelled turbine force (N)


Consider the effects of renewable energy installations in Alderney Race


Introduce pier structures. Assumed parameters; Height = 100m, Diameter = 25m.

The impact of these pier structures on modelled tidal current velocities is negligible in this example.
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DHI is an independent, international consulting and research organisation with the global objective of advancing technological development and competence with respect to water, in all of its environments.

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